Today， supermarkets are found in almost every large city in the world. But the first supermarket was opened only fifty years ago. It was opened in New York by a man named Michael Cullen.
A supermarket is different from other types of stores in several ways. In supermarkets， goods are placed on open shelves. The customers choose what they want and take them to the check-out counter. This means that fewer employees are required than in other stores.
The way products are displayed is another difference between supermarkets and many other types of stores. For example， in supermarkets， there is usually a display of small inexpensive items just in front of the check-out counter： candies， chocolate， magazines， cheap books and so on， why are they there?
Most customers who go to a supermarket buy from a shopping list. They know exactly what they need to buy. They shop according to a plan. By the time he or she reaches the check-out counter， the customer is feeling pleaded and relaxed because the task of shopping is finished. In this happy mood， the customer sees an attractive display of inexpensive goods that were not on her shopping list. Now she feels like buying something just for her own pleasure and enjoyment. Many customers buy from these displays of products near the check-out counter， and this is exactly what the owner of the supermarket hopes they will do.
Another important fact in helping a customer choose what to buy， is where a product is placed on a shelf. A product that is placed at eyelevel on a shelf sells much better than one which is placed on a lower or higher shelf. A product which is easy to see sells best. Manufacturers pay a higher price to have their products placed at eye level on the shelves.
The comfort and convenience of shopping centers is another factor which makes them popular with customers. Large parking spaces are provided， and many supermarkets stay open until very late at night.
1. According to the passage which statement is NOT true?
A) Today supermarkets are found in almost every big city.
B) The first supermarket was opened only half a century ago.
C) The first supermarket was opened in New York.
D) A supermarket is different from other kinds of stores in two ways
解析： 细节题。根据第一段内容知道A、B和C都是正确的，另外第2段的第一句中several ways和下面文章的内容也都可以知道不仅仅是两个方式。
2. According to the passage which statement is true/
A) Supermarkets need more clerks than other stores.
B) In supermarkets goods are placed on closed shelves.
C) The customers prefer supermarkets to other kinds of stores.
D) The customers pay any clerk they meet for what they have bought in supermarkets
解析： A 正好和作者的意思相反了，B也是，应该是opened才是正确的。D中不是直接向导购付费。
3. A product that is placed ___ sells best.
A) on a lower shelf B) on a higher shelf
C) as high as one‘s waist D) as high as one’s eyes
解析： 细节题。文章中的A product that is placed at eyelevel on a shelf sells much better than one which is placed on a lower or higher shelf可以知道正确的答案，
4. Why do you think shopping centers attract more customers than other kinds of stores/
A) They have more kinds of goods.
B) They have few employees.
C) They display small inexpensive items in front of check-out counters.
D) They have large parking lots and they stay open until almost midnight.
5. According to the way small inexpensive items are displayed we can infer that the owner of a supermarket has a good knowledge of ___
A) physiology B) psychology C) biology D) biophysics
Most of the ill health we suffer could be prevented if people made more effort to change their life styles. Instead， many people continue to smoke， to drink excessively to eat unbalanced diets. How can governments help people protect their health and avoid premature death?
Well， many of the measures which need not be expensive. One of the first preventive health measures should be an increase in taxes on tobacco to the point at which consumption falls off. The aim should be to raise the same amount of revenue from a decreasing number of people. In the short term such a policy could even raise extra money， which could then be spent on subsidizing sport so that advertising tobacco through sports sponsorship could be banned.
Legislation is badly needed to ban all advertising of tobacco products as it persuades people to smoke more and so is in a larger part responsible for the ill health and thousands of premature deaths caused by cancer of the lung. Other measures should be enforced， such as a much tougher health warning on cigarette packets， and tobacco companies should be made to contribute to research into a cure for lung cancer.
Alcoholism could be prevented by making wines， spirits and strong beers more expensive and the revenue raised could be used to set up clinics to help the people who already have a drinking problem and want to give up. Similarly all advertising of alcohol should be banned and compensation paid to families of alcoholics who die of the liver disease.
6. Among the following statements， which one is not the life style that people should make more effort to change in order to suffer less?
A) stop smoking B) drink less C) eat balanced food D) collect stamps
7. What does “revenue” in the second paragraph mean?
A) the general income of a government
B) pocket money
C) broad street with trees on both sides
D) building built in memory of somebody or some event
8. Which of the following answers is wrong as to the result of new legislation on tobacco?
A) In a short term， the new legislation on tobacco?
B) Then， the money can stop tobacco sponsorship with sports.
C) In the long run， the new legislation will cause tobacco consumption to fall.
D) But in the long run， the new legislation may raise the falling number of smokers again
解析： 第3段陈述了集中方法，法律收入和警告的形式，前三项都没有问题的，D错在无中生有new legislation作者没有提到。
9. Choose the one measure that the writer wants to carry out against both tobacco and alcohol companies.
A) higher taxes B) lower prices C) advertising banned D) tougher warning
10. How is the writer‘s attitude towards tobacco and alcohol?
A) positive B) slightly negative C) strongly opposing them D) objective
In America Mother‘s Day is celebrated on the second Sunday in May. On that day we send our mothers a special Mother’s Day card， and perhaps some flowers or candy， to show our love and appreciation for all they have done for us. Although Mother‘s Day is a relatively new holiday in America， more and more other countries are also setting aside a day to honor their mothers.
I want to tell you today how the idea of having a special day for mothers began. It all started over a hundred years ago with a woman named Anna May Jarvis.
Anna was born on May 1， 1864， just before the end of the Civil War and the assassination of President Lincoln. She was the daughter of a “minister”， which in American English means a church leader. She was a quiet girl who liked to study in school， but she liked everyone and was liked by everyone as well.
After she became an adult， Anna worked for a life insurance company in Philadelphia， Pennsylvania-a city about halfway between New York City and Washington， D.C. then， in 1906， just two weeks after Anna‘s 42nd birthday， her mother died. It was the second Sunday in May.
In the months that followed， Anna began to change. No longer was she so gentle， so relaxed and easy-going. Instead she now had just one goal for her life-to have her mother and all other mothers honored throughout the whole world on the second Sunday of May.
After more than a year of careful planning， Anna arranged the first Mother‘s Day church service， on May 10， 1908， in Grafton， West Virginia. The next year Anna was able to get the city of Philadelphia， where she lived and worked， to proclaim the second Sunday of May as an official Mother’s Day-the first city to do so. After three more years， the state of West Virginia， where Anna‘s mother had lived， made Mother’s Day a statewide observance – not a holiday in the normal sense， but still a day to remember what mothers have done for their children and society.
11. Which answer is right about Mother‘s Day?
A) In America， Mother‘s Day is a holiday with a very long history.
B) More and more countries are put aside their tradition of celebrating Mother‘s Day.
C) In America， Mother‘s Day is on the second Sunday in May.
D) Throughout the world， Mother‘s Day is celebrated on the same day.
解析： 细节题。根据第一段的内容可以知道A、B、C是正确的，C错在the same day和文章的意思不一样，仅仅是说其它的国家抽出一天但是没有说是在同一天。
12. Choose the right explanation of the word “observance” in the last paragraph
A) remark made by people
B) action in accordance with custom
C) performance of certain tradition
D) notice paid widely
13. How long in all had Anna spent to establish Mother‘s Day in West Virginia?
A) from May 10， 1908 to May 10， 1911
B) for more than four years
C) for more than three years
D) for about three years
解析： 细节题。这题有一定的推算性，on May 10， 1908然后After three more years可以知道应该至少是四年。B是正确的答案。
14. Choose the right understanding of this passage.
A) Anna was born just before the assassination of President Lincoln which ended the Civil War.
B) Anna was a daughter of a minister which in English means a church worker.
C) Anna‘s mother’s death had done a little damage to him easy life.
D) The Mother‘s Day celebrated in West Virginia is not a normal holiday， but a day with special meaning.
解析： 细节题。最后一段的Mother's Day a statewide observance – not a holiday in the normal sense， but still a day to remember what mothers have done for their children and society.可以知道答案。
15. According to the passage， what most probably happened in the paragraph following?
A) The United States Congress proclaimed the Second in May as Mother‘s Day forever in the United States.
B) Mother‘s Day gradually became a conventional celebration.
C) Anna retired from her job with a fortune of over a hundred thousand dollars.
D) People stopped buying candy to their mothers.
Many of us believe that a person‘s mind becomes less active as he grows older. But this is not true， according to Dr Jarvik， professor of psychiatry at the University of California. She has studied the mental functioning of aging persons for several years. For example， one of her studies concerns 136 pairs of identical twins， who were first examined when they were already 60 years old. As Dr Jarvik continued the study of the twins into their 70s and 80s， their minds did not generally decline as was expected.
However， there was some decline in their psycho-motor speed. This means that it took them longer to accomplish mental tasks than it used to. But when speed was not a factor， they lost very little intellectual ability over the years. In general， Dr Jarvik‘s studies have shown that there is no decline in knowledge or reasoning ability. This is true not only with those in their 30s and 40s， but with those in their 60s and 70s as well.
It is true that older people themselves often complain that their memory is not as good as it once was. However， much of what we call “loss of memory” is not that at all. There usually was incomplete learning in the first place. For example， the older person perhaps had trouble hearing， or poor vision， or inattention， or was trying to learn the new thing at too fast a pace. In the cases where the older person‘s mind really seems to decay， it is not necessarily a sign of decay due to old age. Often it is simply a sign of a depressed emotional state.
16.This passage is mainly about ____.
A) how Dr Jarvik studied mental functioning of the twins.
B) what caused mental decay.
C) the results evidenced by Dr Jarvik‘s studies.
D) the difference between middle – aged and older persons
解析： 大意题。本文主要向读者传达了人的记忆和分析能力不是随着年龄的增大而消退，主要是通过。Dr Jarvik的研究成果来显示的。其它选项不是文章的主旨意思。
17. The word “psychiatry” in paragraph 1 most probably means ____.
A) the study of human behavior.
B) the study of disease of the mind.
C) the study of problems with aging persons.
D) the study of twins growth.
解析： 大意题。同上题的解释。主要的是disease of the mind和年龄的区别。
18. A long – term study of 136 pairs of twins showed that ____.
A) they lost a little ability to reason over the years.
B) the only factor which declined over the years was their speed with which to perform mental tasks.
C) their memory was not as good as it had once been.
D) their minds became is not considered as they grew older.
19. Which of the following is not considered as an instanced of “incomplete learning”?
A) Poor hearing.
B) Bad eyesight.
C) Lack of attention.
D) The attempt to learn too many new things at the same time
解析：最后一句的中间部分For example， the older person perhaps had trouble hearing， or poor vision， or inattention， or was trying to learn the new thing at too fast a pace没有提到D项的内容。D项仅仅说的是心理原因造成的结果。
20. What we call mental decay is usually a sign of ____.
A) a low – spirited state.
B) a worsening state of health.
C) old age.
D) nervous tension
解析： 细节题。文章的最后两句都是说明这个问题a sign of a depressed emotional state是说明的mental因素。